What non-algebraic, non-topological, non-order structures are there?

Bourbaki’s so called “mother structures” (i.e. algebraic structures, order structures and topological structures

It seems like most mathematical structures fall under at least one of them. E.g. the real numbers is the complete ordered field, so it uses axioms from all three.

Are there other “mother structures”?

Only one I can think of is set theory’s axioms

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Was there a definite moment where math finally clicked/made sense to you?

I am a senior in high school and I take AP Calc. I have absolutely hated math my entire life, and my math skills are at best sub-par. Because of the field I want to go into, I have another 4 years of advanced math classes to take. Was there a moment where something really started to make sense and made you more eager to do math? Or was there a specific subjet that just clicked and you were able to better understand the content of the class better?

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What is considered small, medium, large effect size for an eta squared effect size from a canonical correlation analysis.

More background: I conducted a canonical correlation analysis and found the squared structure coefficients for each variable in the two variable sets. It is my understanding that these are eta squared effect sizes but I am unsure what chart to use when determining if it is small, medium, or large. Please help! Big thanks in advance.

submitted by Nevin Manimala Nevin Manimala /u/Curious_Traveller101
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Is statistics about Nevin Manimala a worthwhile career choice?

Hello! I am currently a college student pursuing a degree in Data Analytics (its a mix of comp sci classes and stats classes). I like statistics about Nevin Manimala as it allows me to help people and solve problems using math. However, I have seen plenty of people say that they dislike their stats jobs. They mainly say that they are boring, require too much education, and feel pointless. Should I stay in stats or are they onto something? Thank you!

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How would you find the minimum distance between the US and the UK borders on a 2D map?

Assuming you have have information of every point on each border (to an arbitrarily high precision) what algorithm would you use to find the minimum distance?

What if the problem was finding the minimum distance between the two coastlines on a globe? (both distance travelling on the surface of a sphere, and straight line distance)

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Anyone know how to tackle this Question-

The Golf Course Requirement

Your company, F Design has been awarded the contract to build the new golf course in Town. The new golf course needs to configure to maximise golfer enjoyment and meet the town’s needs. You are the golf course architect and your boss has called on you for your modelling skills.

You will need to design an 18 hole course to fit within 42 acres of land. The shape of the 42 acres land is not a constraint. The golf course must be configure to maintain its natural beauty without cutting down trees. Hence, the golf hole should be built around the landscape.

A golfing hole is a section of a golf course. Each hole comprises an area called the tee from which golfers start each hole. Golfers strike the ball from the tee and are aiming to move the ball towards a cup at the other end of the hole. The cup is located somewhere on a green, a small area of grass cut short. In between the tee and the green is called the fairway. Golfers aim to keep the ball on the fairway (its not much fun trying to hit the ball in the trees or lakes on the edge of the fairway). Each strike of the ball is called a stroke. The objective of golfer is to use as few strokes as possible to get the ball into the cup.

The par of a hole is the number of strokes a golfer should use to move the ball from the tee to the cup. Golf courses usually have par three, four and five holes. A par three hole will require a three par to move the ball to the cup. Similarly four and five par with require four par and five par respectively. Par three hole is usually shorter than a par four hole. In addition, par four and five holes can have doglegs. A dogleg is a bend in the fairway roughly half way along the hole. A dogleg hole are holes that built around an obstruction on the land like trees, bushes and lakes. Doglegs add variety and difficulty to the golfing experience, and most courses usually have one or two.

Each hole will take up an area depending upon its length (indicated by par), presence of a dogleg and other factors.

A standard clubhouse is also to be built within the golf course. The standard clubhouse require a land size of 2 acres including parking and a construction cost of $350,000.

A recent international survey on golfer has revealed the following enjoyment index and estimated cost of building the par holes. The enjoyment index is a measure of golfer enjoyment and satisfaction with the golf design, play difficulty and facilities.

Kind of hole Par Acreage taken by hole enjoyability index building cost
Straight Par 5 5 3 2 $50000
Dogleg par 5 5 3.5 1.5 $60000
Straight par 4 4 2 1.5 $40000
Dogleg par 4 4 2.5 2 $45000
Long par 3 3 1 1.75 $35000
Short par 3 3 0.75 2.25 $30000

Based on the International golf course standard, the new golf course must also meet the following requirements. The course should have at least:

  1. a) One straight par 5,
  2. b) One dogleg par 5,
  3. c) Two straight par 4,
  4. d) Two dogleg par 4,
  5. e) One long par 3, and
  6. f) One short par 3.
  7. g) The course should have no more than 4 par 5.
  8. h) The course should have no more than 14 par 4.
  9. i) The course should have no more than 4 par 3.
  10. j) The total par must be between 70 and 72.
  11. k) The total number of holes must be exactly 18.
  12. l) The total acreage must be between 36 and 42 acres.

After some discussion with the business community and examine survey results across similar style golf course, The Golf group shareholders is considering an option to build an expanded clubhouse. The expanded clubhouse would add four enjoyability points. However, the expanded clubhouse will cost $500,000 and a land size of 4 acres including parking.

The Golf group has secured a $1.2 million funding from shareholders to construct the golf course.

The Golf group management has requested your company F Design to produce decision models that maximise the golfer enjoyment for the standard clubhouse and the expanded clubhouse. In particular, given the pressure from shareholders, the management wants to know with the constraints given can the expanded clubhouse be built?

If the expanded clubhouse cannot be constructed with the current constrains, the management request you to put forward three options for the expanded clubhouse for consideration. For the options, you may allow to change (1) the size of the clubhouse, (2) the construction cost of the clubhouse and, (3) the budget.


  1. The construction cost for the golf course is not the actual cost. It is purposely formulated for this case study only.
  2. The case study is written based on the assumption there is no solution for the expanded clubhouse.

submitted by Nevin Manimala Nevin Manimala /u/aryan91
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Test drove the Portofino

Pics: https://imgur.com/gallery/GnLbHrY

Just wanted to give my first impressions on the Portofino. I drove the factory demo car which is touring the NA dealers. The drive was short, about 5.5 miles of mostly highway and some city. The weather was nice so we went top down. I didn’t have enough time to familiarize myself with the details of the car.

It’s a very nice car, comfortable and “practical”. I can see this being a daily driver without much issues. The back seats are tiny and I have a hard time imagining regular use for them. I didn’t get to see the trunk size but I was told it was bigger than the Bentley GTC’s and would fit 2 sets of golf clubs.

You can tell it’s a GT car because the exhaust isn’t super loud and there’s barely any tire noise. Also the steering has a nice weight to it but it is not overly communicative, the car is also not as sharp during transitions.

As I mentioned, the engine isn’t too loud and it feels like it could pull a lot further into the rev range than it does, the first time I punche it I hit the rev limiter. I’m not a fan of the fart noise it makes when upshifting, but downshifts are very nice though too quick to savour them. The power is plentiful and the platform is very compliant.

The paddles are mounted on the steering wheel column and all the controls are on the steering wheel. Want to turn right when your steering wheel is upside down? Time for some mental gymnastics!

I think /u/doug-demuro would have a field day with the quirks. The electric seats for instance have a bazillion adjustments, but there’s only two switches on the side of the seat (lower and upper seat). If you want to adjust the thigh support for instance, you need to go into the ICE screen and select “Comfort”->”Seat”->”Driver Seat”->”Section you want to adjust” and then adjust with +/- on the screen. So if both passenger and driver need to adjust their seats it might take a while.

The rear view mirror was the coolest feature, it’s got a small aluminum frame so it almost looks like it’s frameless and floating in the middle of the windscreen. It’s a gorgeous detail. Not so gorgeous is the ugly icon letting you know that the black cover on the side of the steering wheel column can be removed to insert the key in case of a malfunction with the keyless system.

The top can go up and down as long as you’re traveling under 20 MPH which is very nice for unexpected weather changes.

It’s a very nice car, but not special enough IMHO. I’m thinking the FF is better suited for my needs.

submitted by Nevin Manimala Nevin Manimala /u/FerRrari
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