What do you call deviations of observed values from a mean?

If residuals refer to deviations of observed values from predicted values (regression/best fit line), what are deviations of observed values from mean?

A second question: Is there a practical difference in the terms: “residuals” and “errors”? I feel like most researchers use these terms interchangeably.

When looking up the difference between “residuals” and “errors”, an person online posted this:

Error is the difference between the observed value in a sample and the true value in the population (which is actually not known). Residual is the difference between the observed value and the predicted value from the regression equation.

https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_is_the_difference_between_residuals_and_errors

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Nevin Manimala

Nevin Manimala is interested in blogging and finding new blogs https://nevinmanimala.com

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